Like neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker in the brain, single fibroblasts can function as independent oscillators. In the SCN, synaptic and paracrine signaling among cells creates a robust, synchronized circadian oscillation, whereas there is no evidence for such integration in fibroblast cultures. However, interactions among single-cell fibroblast oscillators cannot be completely excluded, because fibroblasts were not isolated in previous work. In this study, we tested the autonomy of fibroblasts as single-cell circadian oscillators in high- and low-density culture, by single-cell imaging of cells from PER2::LUC circadian reporter mice. We found greatly reduced PER2::LUC rhythmicity in low-density cultures, which could result from lack of either constitutive or rhythmic paracrine signals from neighboring fibroblasts. To discriminate between these 2 possibilities, we mixed PER2::LUC wild-type (WT) cells with nonluminescent, nonrhythmic Bmal1-/- cells, so that density of rhythmic cells was low but overall cell density remained high. In this condition, WT cells showed clear rhythmicity similar to high-density cultures. We also mixed PER2::LUC WT cells with nonluminescent, long period Cry2-/- cells. In this condition, WT cells showed a period no different from cells cultured with rhythmic WT cells or nonrhythmic Bmal1-/- cells. In previous work, we found that low K+ suppresses fibroblast rhythmicity, and we and others have found that either low K+ or low Ca2+ suppresses SCN rhythmicity. Therefore, we attempted to rescue rhythmicity of low-density fibroblasts with high K+ (21 mM), high Ca2+ (3.6 mM), or conditioned medium. Conditioned medium from high-density fibroblast cultures rescued rhythmicity of low-density cultures, whereas high K+ or Ca2+ medium did not consistently rescue rhythmicity. These data suggest that fibroblasts require paracrine signals from adjacent cells for normal expression of rhythmicity, but that these signals do not have to be rhythmic, and that rhythmic signals from other cells do not affect the intrinsic periods of fibroblasts. © 2013 The Author(s).