PurposeDespite the advent of FDA-approved therapeutics to a limited number of available targets (kinases and mTOR), PFS of kidney cancer (RCC) has been extended only one to two years due to the development of drug resistance. Here, we evaluate a novel therapeutic for RCC which targets the exportin-1 (XPO1) inhibitor.
Materials and methodsRCC cells were treated with the orally available XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330, and cell viability and Annexin V (apoptosis) assays, and cell cycle analyses were performed to evaluate the efficacy of KPT-330 in two RCC cell lines. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis were performed to validate mechanisms of XPO1 inhibition. The efficacy and on-target effects of KPT-330 were further analyzed in vivo in RCC xenograft mice, and KPT-330-resistant cells were established to evaluate potential mechanisms of KPT-330 resistance.
ResultsKPT-330 attenuated RCC viability through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction both in vitro and in vivo, a process in which increased nuclear localization of p21 by XPO1 inhibition played a major role. In addition, KPT-330 resistant cells remained sensitive to the currently approved for RCC multi-kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, sorafenib) and mTOR inhibitors (everolimus, temsirolimus), suggesting that these targeted therapeutics would remain useful as second line therapeutics following KPT-330 treatment.
ConclusionThe orally-available XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330, represents a novel target for RCC whose in vivo efficacy approaches that of sunitinib. In addition, cells resistant to KPT-330 retain their ability to respond to available RCC therapeutics suggesting a novel approach for treatment in KPT-330-naïve as well as -resistant RCC patients.