Many smokers believe that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and pharmaceutical cessation aids can help them quit smoking or reduce cigarette consumption, but the evidence for e-cigarettes to aid quitting is limited. Examining 3,093 quit attempters in the nationally representative US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, using data from 2013-2015, we evaluated the influence of ENDS and pharmaceutical cessation aids on persistent abstinence (≥30 days) from cigarettes and reduced cigarette consumption, using propensity score matching to balance comparison groups on potential confounders and multiple imputation to handle missing data. At PATH Wave 2, 25.2% of quit attempters reported using ENDS to quit during the previous year, making it the most popular cessation aid in 2014-2015. More quit attempters were persistently cigarette abstinent than were persistently tobacco abstinent (15.5% (standard error, 0.8) vs. 9.6% (standard error, 0.6)). Using ENDS to quit cigarettes increased the probability of persistent cigarette abstinence at Wave 2 (risk difference (RD) = 6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2, 10), but using approved pharmaceutical aids did not (for varenicline, RD = 2%, 95% CI: -6, 13; for bupropion, RD = 4%, 95% CI: -6, 17; for nicotine replacement therapy, RD = -3%, 95% CI: -8, 2). Among quit attempters who relapsed, ENDS did not reduce the average daily cigarette consumption (cigarettes per day, -0.18, 95% CI: -1.87, 1.51).