To investigate gender and ethnic type 2 diabetes (DM) prevalences among California Asian subgroups versus other ethnic groups and if risk factors explain these differences.
We identified the prevalence of DM and associated risk factors, stratified by gender, among Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mexican, Other Hispanic, African American, Caucasian, and Native American adults in a large survey conducted in 2009 (n=46,091, projected n= 26.6 mil).
The highest age-adjusted DM prevalence was seen in Native Americans (32.4%), Filipinos (15.8%), and Japanese (11.8%) among men and in Native Americans (16.0%) and African Americans (13.3%) among women. Caucasian and Mexican men had higher DM prevalences than women. Age and risk factor-adjusted logistic regression showed DM more likely (relative to Caucasians) among women in Koreans (OR=4.6, p<0.01), Native Americans (OR=3.0, p<0.01), and Other Hispanics (OR 2.9, p<0.01) and among men in Filipinos (OR=7.0, p<0.01), South Asians (OR=4.7, p<0.01), and Native Americans (OR=4.7, p<0.01). No specific risk factors accounted for the gender differences.
Ethnic and gender differences in DM prevalence persist, even after adjusting for lifestyle and other risk factors; prevalence is high among certain Asian American subgroups. Different diabetes prevention approaches may be needed across ethnic/gender groups.