BACKGROUND:Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complicated clinical syndrome associated with high mortality, with liver transplantation as the only treatment option. Treatment of mesenchymal stem cells has shown a potential therapeutic option for acute liver failure. However, the lack of random clinical trials and large non-human primate studies makes it necessary to assess the efficacy and safety in the clinic. METHODS:We treated the monkeys with peripheral delivery of human umbilical MSCs (hUC-MSCs) and investigated the role of hUC-MSCs in modulating the progress of acute liver failure. RESULTS:The use of early peripheral infusion of human umbilical cord MSC infusion did not improve liver regeneration or modulate adaptive immunity. However, it significantly suppressed the hepatic aggregation and maturation of circulating monocytes and their IL-6 secretion, greatly improving liver histology, systemic homeostasis, and survival. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals the critical role of monocyte-derived IL-6 in initiating and accelerating acute liver failure and hUC-MSC treatment can disrupt the development of the inflammatory cascade by inhibiting monocyte activation. Early hUC-MSC treatment disrupts the development of the inflammatory cascade, indicating a potential clinical solution for acute liver failure.