HIV-1 Tat is a key regulator of viral transcription, however little is known about the mechanisms that control its turnover in T cells. Here we use a novel proteomics technique, called DiffPOP, to identify the molecular target of JIB-04, a small molecule compound that potently and selectively blocks HIV-1 Tat expression, transactivation, and virus replication in T cell lines. Mass-spectrometry analysis of whole-cell extracts from 2D10 Jurkat T cells revealed that JIB-04 targets Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), a regulator of glycine biosynthesis and an adaptor for the BRCC36 K63Ub-specific deubiquitinase in the BRISC complex. Importantly, knockdown of SHMT1,2 or BRCC36, or exposure of cells to JIB-04, strongly increased Tat K63Ub-dependent destruction via autophagy. Moreover, point mutation of multiple lysines in Tat, or knockdown of BRCC36 or SHMT1,2, was sufficient to prevent destruction of Tat by JIB-04. We conclude that HIV-1 Tat levels are regulated through K63Ub-selective autophagy mediated through SHMT1,2 and the BRCC36 deubiquitinase.