BackgroundThe recently identified member of the TNF superfamily TL1A (TNFSF15) increases IFN-gamma production by T cells in peripheral and mucosal CCR9+ T cells. TL1A and its receptor DR3 are up-regulated during chronic intestinal inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). TL1A gene haplotypes increase CD susceptibility in Japanese, European, and US cohorts.
Methodology and principal findingsHere we report that the presence of TL1A gene haplotype B increases risk in Jewish CD patients with antibody titers for the E. coli outer membrane porin C (OmpC+) (Haplotype B frequency in Jewish CD patients: 24.9% for OmpC negative and 41.9% for OmpC positive patients, respectively, P< or =0.001). CD14+ monocytes isolated from Jewish OmpC+ patients homozygous for TL1A gene haplotype B express higher levels of TL1A in response to FcgammaR stimulation, a known inducing pathway of TL1A, as measured by ELISA. Furthermore, the membrane expression of TL1A is increased on peripheral monocytes from Jewish but not non-Jewish CD patients with the risk haplotype.
Conclusions and significanceThese findings suggest that TL1A gene variation exacerbates induction of TL1A in response to FcgammaR stimulation in Jewish CD patients and this may lead to chronic intestinal inflammation via overwhelming T cell responses. Thus, TL1A may provide an important target for therapeutic intervention in this subgroup of IBD patients.