© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 2D layered materials have emerged in recent years as a new platform to host novel electronic, optical, or excitonic physics and develop unprecedented nanoelectronic and energy applications. By definition, these materials are strongly anisotropic between the basal plane and cross the plane. The structural and property anisotropies inside their basal plane, however, are much less investigated. Black phosphorus, for example, is a 2D material that has such in-plane anisotropy. Here, a rare chemical form of arsenic, called black-arsenic (b-As), is reported as a cousin of black phosphorus, as an extremely anisotropic layered semiconductor. Systematic characterization of the structural, electronic, thermal, and electrical properties of b-As single crystals is performed, with particular focus on its anisotropies along two in-plane principle axes, armchair (AC) and zigzag (ZZ). The analysis shows that b-As exhibits higher or comparable electronic, thermal, and electric transport anisotropies between the AC and ZZ directions than any other known 2D crystals. Such extreme in-plane anisotropies can potentially implement novel ideas for scientific research and device applications.