© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Control of self-assembling systems at the micro- and nano-scale provides new opportunities for the engineering of novel materials in a bottom-up fashion. These systems have several challenges associated with control including high-dimensional and stochastic nonlinear dynamics, limited sensors for real-time measurements, limited actuation for control, and kinetic trapping of the system in undesirable configurations. Three main strategies for addressing these challenges are described, which include particle design (active self-assembly), open-loop control, and closed-loop (feedback) control. The strategies are illustrated using a variety of examples such as the design of patchy and Janus particles, the toggling of magnetic fields to induce the crystallization of paramagnetic colloids, and high-throughput crystallization of organic compounds in nanoliter droplets. An outlook of the future research directions and the necessary technological advancements for control of micro- and nano-scale self-assembly is provided.