Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) harboring EGFR mutations prevails in Asian population. However, the inter-patient and intra-tumor heterogeneity has not been addressed at single-cell resolution. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of total 125,674 cells from seven stage-I/II LUAD samples harboring EGFR mutations and five tumor-adjacent lung tissues. We identified diverse cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) in which myeloid cells and T cells were the most abundant stromal cell types in tumors and adjacent lung tissues. Within tumors, accompanied by an increase in CD1C+ dendritic cells, the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) showed pro-tumoral functions without signature gene expression of defined M1 or M2 polarization. Tumor-infiltrating T cells mainly displayed exhausted and regulatory T-cell features. The adenocarcinoma cells can be categorized into different subtypes based on their gene expression signatures in distinct pathways such as hypoxia, glycolysis, cell metabolism, translation initiation, cell cycle, and antigen presentation. By performing pseudotime trajectory, we found that ELF3 was among the most upregulated genes in more advanced tumor cells. In response to secretion of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL1B) from immune infiltrates, ELF3 in tumor cells was upregulated to trigger the activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway and elevated expression of proliferation and anti-apoptosis genes such as BCL2L1 and CCND1. Taken together, our study revealed substantial heterogeneity within early-stage LUAD harboring EGFR mutations, implicating complex interactions among tumor cells, stromal cells and immune infiltrates in the TME.