High-fat diet (HFD) causes renal lipotoxicity that is ameliorated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Although bioactive eicosanoids increase with HFD and are essential in regulation of renal disease, their role in the inflammatory response to HFD-induced kidney disease and their modulation by AMPK activation remain unexplored. In a mouse model, we explored the effects of HFD on eicosanoid synthesis and the role of AMPK activation in ameliorating these changes. We used targeted lipidomic profiling with quantitative MS to determine PUFA and eicosanoid content in kidneys, urine, and renal arterial and venous circulation. HFD increased phospholipase expression as well as the total and free pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA) and anti-inflammatory DHA in kidneys. Consistent with the parent PUFA levels, the AA- and DHA-derived lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450, and nonenzymatic degradation (NE) metabolites increased in kidneys with HFD, while EPA-derived LOX and NE metabolites decreased. Conversely, treatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-furanosyl 5'-monophosphate (AICAR), an AMPK activator, reduced the free AA and DHA content and the DHA-derived metabolites in kidney. Interestingly, kidney and circulating AA, AA metabolites, EPA-derived LOX, and NE metabolites are increased with HFD; whereas, DHA metabolites are increased in kidney in contrast to their decreased circulating levels with HFD. Together, these changes showcase HFD-induced pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid dysregulation and highlight the role of AMPK in correcting HFD-induced dysregulated eicosanoid pathways.