We define two general classes of nonabelian sandpile models on directed trees
(or arborescences) as models of nonequilibrium statistical phenomena. These
models have the property that sand grains can enter only through specified
reservoirs, unlike the well-known abelian sandpile model.
In the Trickle-down sandpile model, sand grains are allowed to move one at a
time. For this model, we show that the stationary distribution is of product
form. In the Landslide sandpile model, all the grains at a vertex topple at
once, and here we prove formulas for all eigenvalues, their multiplicities, and
the rate of convergence to stationarity. The proofs use wreath products and the
representation theory of monoids.