ObjectiveThe Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT study) was designed to assess the efficacy of isolated supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid, an isolated multidomain intervention (consisting of nutritional counseling, physical exercise, cognitive stimulation) or a combination of the two interventions on the change of cognitive functions in frail subjects aged 70 years and older for a period of 3 years. Ancillary neuroimaging studies were additionally implemented to evaluate the impact of interventions on cerebral metabolism (FDG PET scans) and atrophy rate (MRIs), as well as brain amyloïd deposit (AV45 PET scans).
Design patients1680 subjects (mean age: 75.3 years; female: 64.8 %), enrolled by 13 memory clinics, were randomized into one of the following four groups: omega-3 supplementation alone, multidomain intervention alone, omega-3 plus multidomain intervention, or placebo. Participants underwent cognitive, functional and biological assessments at M6, M12, M24 and M36 visits. The primary endpoint is a change of memory function at 3 years, as assessed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test. All participants will be followed for 2 additional years after the 3-years intervention (MAPT PLUS extension study).
Interventions1/Omega-3 supplementation: two soft capsules daily as a single dose, containing a total of 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), i.e., 800 mg docosahexaenoic acid per day, for 3 years. 2/ Multidomain intervention: collective training sessions conducted in small groups (6-8 participants) in twelve 120-minute sessions over the first 2 months (two sessions a week for the first month, and one session a week the second month) then a 60-minute session per month in the following three areas: nutrition, physical activity, and cognition until the end of the 3 years. In addition to the collective sessions, individualized preventive outpatient visits exploring possible risk factors for cognitive decline are performed at baseline, M12 and M24.
Baseline populationFor cognition, the mean MMSE at baseline was 28.1 (± 1.6). About 58% and 42% of participants had a CDR score equal to 0 and 0.5, respectively. Regarding mobility status, 200 (11.9%) had a 4-m gait speed lower or equal to 0.8 m/s. According to the Fried criteria, 673 (42.1%) participants were considered pre frail, and 51 (3.2%) frail. The red blood cell DHA content was 26.1 ± 8.1 µg/g. Five hundred and three participants underwent baseline MRI. AV45 PET scans were performed in 271 individuals and preliminary results showed that 38.0% had a cortical SUVR > 1.17, which gave an indication of significant brain amyloïd deposit. DISCUSSION: The MAPT trial is presently the first largest and longest multidomain preventive trial relevant to cognitive decline in older adults with subjective memory complaints. The multidomain intervention designed for the MAPT trial is likely to be easily implemented within the general population.