The brain is a powerful organ that can be damaged with irreversible consequences. Neglect alongside coexisting factors, such as childhood abuse, can affect the overall development of the brain. The severity and longevity of such adverse childhood effects can impair the cognitive, social, and behavioral progresses. This literature review discusses the effects of neglect and coexisting factors, and the negative effects on overall cognition (intellectual, social and behavioral). Results expressed that neglect effects children’s ability to strive in the future. Children who were neglected demonstrated low IQ levels, significantly low levels of social skills, and troubling behavioral skills.