CREDE's Five Standards for Effective Teaching and Learning express the principles of effective pedagogy for all students. For mainstream students, the Standards describe the ideal; for at-risk students, the Standards are vital (Dalton, 1998). While the work contributing to the standards articulated in CREDE's projects comes from several theoretical systems, CREDE's Standards are stated in the language of sociocultural theory.
I. Teacher and Students Producing Together (Joint Productive Activity)
II. Developing Language Across the Curriculum (Language Development)
III. Making Meaning: Connecting School to Students' Lives (Contextualization)
IV. Teaching Complex Thinking (Cognitive Challenge)
V. Teaching Through Interactive Discussions (Instructional Conversation)
In this research brief, we focus on language development as well as academic development for English language learners. Teachers are concerned about covering content and curriculum, and they often ignore students' language development, which is critical for academic success. For secondary school learners, regardless of program (e.g., early exit primary language, sheltered instruction), there are some features necessary for language development. Teachers should
• understand the language needs of students,
• explicitly plan to meet those needs,
• deliver instruction, and
• assess students' comprehension.
We discuss each feature, using a case study to illustrate what the teachers need to know, consider, and do.