BackgroundBisphenol A (BPA) is useful in many manufacturing processes and is also found in commonly used consumer products. Previous experimental studies have reported that perinatal exposure to BPA promotes the development of allergic lung inflammation in childhood and even into adulthood. In this study, the effects of BPA on allergic lung inflammation in adults were investigated in murine lungs.
MethodsCD-1 mice were orally administrated with 1 mg of BPA/mouse four times at one-week intervals with or without ovalbumin (OVA). The pathologic changes in the airways, cytological alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in BALF, and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies in serum were measured in the treated CD-1 mice. In vitro study using RAW264.7 cells, which are macrophage-like cells derived from BALB/c male mice, was conducted. The gene expression of cytokines and chemokines were measured.
ResultsBPA enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the alveoli and in the submucosa of the airway, which has a goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. BPA increased Th2 cytokines-interleukin-13 (IL-13), eosinophil-relevant cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-5, and CCL2 induced by OVA, in BALF. BPA induced adjuvant effects on OVA-specific IgG1 production. In the in vitro study using RAW264.7 cells, BPA increased the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2 and CCL3 compared with the control and OVA groups.
ConclusionsThese results suggest that (1) the exposure of BPA could synergize with an OVA challenge to aggravate the severity of lung eosinophilia in adult mice, possibly by promoting a Th2-biased immune response and (2) the activation of macrophages and inflammatory cytokines released from these cells by BPA could be participating in this phenomenon.