Evolutionary Medicine is an emerging medical field that mainly addresses the causes of diseases under the consideration of evolutionary principles . Viewing diseases through the evolutionary perspective also opens up new and innovative treatment strategies. In particular, the understanding that most of the so-called “diseases of civilization” emerge from a discrepancy between our modern, civilized lifestyle and that towards which our human species (as hunters and gatherers) has evolved, challenges the concept of these diseases being chronic and provides new treatment approaches. Examples of such approaches were provided in the first annual symposium of the recently founded German Society for Paleo Nutrition (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Paläoernährung e.V., DGPE). The meeting entitled ”Modern Lifestyle – Modern Diseases” took place on October 5th 2013 in Schweinfurt, Germany, and focussed specifically on nutrition in health and disease from an evolutionary perspective. This paper is a collection of abstracts of the scientific talks given at the sympoisum.