Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is a destructive citrus disease associated with 3 α-proteobacteria species of Candidatus Liberibacter. The first report of HLB in the USA was from Florida in 2005 and Ca. L. asiaticus (Las) is the only species currently confirmed in the USA. In January 2012, a Valencia sweet orange tree in a commercial orchard in San Juan, Texas, tested positive for Las by real-time and conventional PCR assays and by the sequence of its partial 16S rRNA gene. The sample tested negative for Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanus. All 4 Valencia sweet orange seedlings that were graft-inoculated using budwood from the first Texas HLB-infected tree showed typical HLB symptoms 3 months post-inoculation and tested positive for the pathogen. Such HLB typical symptoms as leaf blotchy mottle, twig die-back, veinal chlorosis, lopsided and greening fruits were observed on the Las-positive tree in the orchard, which immediately triggered an intensive survey of the disease in the area. Typical HLB symptoms were found on 54 Valencia sweet orange trees in the same orchard and 18 Rio Red grapefruit trees in an adjacent orchard. All these symptomatic trees tested positive for Las by PCR and sequencing.