The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, COVID-19, and other infections. Long-term analyses identified that cognitive decline over time, phenotypic aging, and stroke are associated with various comorbidities in people with HIV. Neuroimaging studies showed greater neuroinflammation, white matter damage, demyelination, and overall brain aging in people with chronic HIV infection. Childhood trauma and exposure to environmental pollutants contribute to these neuroimaging findings. Studies of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers showed that systemic inflammation, neurodegeneration, endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation are associated with worse cognition in people with HIV. Some animal studies focused on myeloid cells of the central nervous system, but other animal and human studies showed that lymphoid cells also contribute to HIV neuropathogenesis. The deleterious central nervous system effects of polypharmacy and anticholinergic drugs in people with HIV were demonstrated. In contrast, a large randomized controlled trial showed that integrase strand transfer inhibitor therapy was not associated with neurotoxicity. Studies of cryptococcal meningitis demonstrated he cost-effectiveness of single high-dose liposomal amphotericin and the prognostic value of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. People hospitalized with COVID-19 had more anxiety over time after discharge. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen is present in cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral RNA. Systemic inflammation, astrocyte activation, and tryptophan metabolism pathways are associated with post-COVID-19 neurologic syndromes. Whether these processes are independent or intertwined during HIV-1 and COVID-19 infections requires further study.