In this Perspective, we discuss current challenges in artificial photosynthesis research, with a focus on the benefits of a nanowire morphology. Matching the flux between electrocatalysts and light-absorbers, and between individual semiconducting light-absorbers, are two major issues to design economically viable devices for artificial photosynthesis. With the knowledge that natural photosynthesis is an integrated nanosystem, individual building blocks of biomimetic artificial photosynthesis are discussed. Possible research directions are presented under an integrated device design scheme, with examples of our current progress in these areas. Coupling all of the components together, including electrocatalysts, light-absorbers, and charge transport units, is crucial due to both fundamental and practical considerations. Given the advantages of one-dimensional nanostructures, it is evident that semiconductor nanowires can function as essential building blocks and help to solve many of the issues in artificial photosynthesis. © 2013 American Chemical Society.