Tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking has never been lower in the United States, but electronic cigarette (EC) vaping has reached epidemic proportions among our youth. Endothelial dysfunction, as measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) is a predictor of future atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events and is impaired in young TC smokers, but whether FMD is also reduced in young EC vapers is uncertain. The aim of this study in otherwise healthy young people was to compare the effects of acute and chronic tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking and electronic cigarette (EC) vaping on FMD. FMD was compared in 47 nonsmokers (NS), 49 chronic EC vapers, and 40 chronic TC smokers at baseline and then after EC vapers (n = 31) and nonsmokers (n = 47) acutely used an EC with nicotine (ECN), EC without nicotine (EC0), and nicotine inhaler (NI) at ~4-wk intervals and after TC smokers (n = 33) acutely smoked a TC, compared with sham control. Mean age (NS, 26.3 ± 5.2 vs. EC, 27.4 ± 5.45 vs. TC, 27.1 ± 5.51 yr, P = 0.53) was similar among the groups, but there were more female nonsmokers. Baseline FMD was not different among the groups (NS, 7.7 ± 4.5 vs. EC:6.6 ± 3.6 vs. TC, 7.9 ± 3.7%∆, P = 0.35), even when compared by group and sex. Acute TC smoking versus control impaired FMD (FMD pre-/postsmoking, -2.52 ± 0.92 vs. 0.65 ± 0.93%∆, P = 0.02). Although the increase in plasma nicotine was similar after EC vapers used the ECN versus TC smokers smoked the TC (5.75 ± 0.74 vs. 5.88 ± 0.69 ng/mL, P = 0.47), acute EC vaping did not impair FMD. In otherwise healthy young people who regularly smoke TCs or ECs, impaired FMD compared with that in nonsmokers was not present at baseline. However, FMD was significantly impaired after smoking one TC, but not after vaping an equivalent "dose" (estimated by change in plasma nicotine) of an EC, consistent with the notion that non-nicotine constituents in TC smoke mediate the impairment. Although it is reassuring that acute EC vaping did not acutely impair FMD, it would be dangerous and premature to conclude that ECs do not lead to atherosclerosis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In our study of otherwise healthy young people, baseline flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a predictor of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk, was not different among tobacco cigarette (TC) smokers or electronic cigarette (EC) vapers who had refrained from smoking, compared with nonsmokers. However, acutely smoking one TC impaired FMD in smokers, whereas vaping a similar EC "dose" (as estimated by change in plasma nicotine levels) did not. Finally, although it is reassuring that acute EC vaping did not acutely impair FMD, it would be premature and dangerous to conclude that ECs do not lead to atherosclerosis or increase cardiovascular risk.