Thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) belongs to a family of large, oligomeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins that mediate interactions between cells and interactions of cells with underlying matrix components. Recent evidence shows that TSP4 might contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. However, there has been no systematic examination of TSP4 expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after injury. This study, therefore, investigates whether TSP4 protein level is changed in DRG after injury following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and spared nerve injury in rats by performing Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry. After nerve ligation, TSP4 protein level is upregulated in the axotomized somata of the fifth lumbar (L5) DRG. There is substantial additional TSP4 in the nonneuronal compartment of the L5 DRG that does not costain for markers of satellite glia, microglia, or Schwann cells and appears to be in the interstitial space. Evidence of intracellular overexpression of TSP4 persists in neurons dissociated from the L5 DRG after SNL. These findings indicate that, following peripheral nerve injury, TSP4 protein expression is elevated in the cytoplasm of axotomized sensory neurons and in the surrounding interstitial space.