Previous genotype:phenotype mapping of the mouse and primate dentition revealed the presence of pre- and post-canine modules in mice and anthropoid primates, as well as molar and premolar submodules in anthropoid primates. We estimated phenotypic correlation matrices for species that sample broadly across Mammalia to test the hypothesis that these modules exist across a broader range of taxa and thereby represent a conserved mammalian trait. We calculated phenotypic correlation matrices from linear dental measurements of 419 individual specimens representing 5 species from 4 mammalian orders: Artiodactyla (Odocoileus hemionus), Carnivora (Canis latrans and Ursus americanus), Didelphimorphia (Didelphis virginiana), and Primates (Colobus guereza). Our results based on hierarchical clustering indicate a generally higher correlation within incisors and among post-canine teeth. However, the post-canine phenotypic correlation matrices do not consistently exhibit the premolar and molar submodularity observed in anthropoid primates. Additionally, we find evidence of sex differences in the Odocoileus phenotypic correlation matrices: Males of this species exhibit overall higher inter-trait correlations compared to females. Our overall findings support the interpretation that incisors and post-canine dentition represent different phenotypic modules, and that this architecture may be a conserved trait for mammals.