We present the results of a detailed study of the noise performance of candidate NIR detectors for the proposed Super-Nova Acceleration Probe. Effects of Fowler sampling depth and frequency, temperature, exposure time, detector material, detector reverse-bias and multiplexer type are quantified. We discuss several tools for determining which sources of low frequency noise are primarily responsible for the sub-optimal noise improvement when multiple sampling. The effectiveness of reference pixel subtraction to mitigate zero point drifts is demonstrated, and the circumstances under which reference pixel subtraction should or should not be applied are examined. Spatial and temporal noise measurements are compared, and a simple method for quantifying the effect of hot pixels and RTS noise on spatial noise is described.

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## Scholarly Works (46 results)

LBL Publications (2006)

We evaluate the impact of imaging systematics on the clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRG), emission-line galaxies (ELG), and quasars (QSO) targeted for the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Using Data Release 7 of the DECam Legacy Survey, we study the effects of astrophysical foregrounds, stellar contamination, differences between north galactic cap and south galactic cap measurements, and variations in imaging depth, stellar density, galactic extinction, seeing, airmass, sky brightness, and exposure time before presenting survey masks and weights to mitigate these effects. With our sanitized samples in hand, we conduct a preliminary analysis of the clustering amplitude and evolution of the DESI main targets. From measurements of the angular correlation functions, we determine power law fits r0 = 7.78 ± 0.26 h−1Mpc, γ = 1.98 ± 0.02 for LRGs and r0 = 5.45 ± 0.1 h−1Mpc, γ = 1.54 ± 0.01 for ELGs. Additionally, from the angular power spectra, we measure the linear biases and model the scale-dependent biases in the weakly non-linear regime. Both sets of clustering measurements show good agreement with survey requirements for LRGs and ELGs, attesting that these samples will enable DESI to achieve precise cosmological constraints. We also present clustering as a function of magnitude, use cross-correlations with external spectroscopy to infer dN/dz and measure clustering as a function of luminosity, and probe higher order clustering statistics through counts-in-cells moments.

We measure the 1D Ly α power spectrum P1D from Keck Observatory Database of Ionized Absorption toward Quasars (KODIAQ), The Spectral Quasar Absorption Database (SQUAD), and XQ-100 quasars using the optimal quadratic estimator. We combine KODIAQ and SQUAD at the spectrum level, but perfo a separate XQ-100 estimation to control its large resolution corrections in check. Our final analysis measures P1D at scales k < 0.1 s km-1 between redshifts $z$ = 2.0-4.6 using 538 quasars. This sample provides the largest number of high-resolution, high-S/N observations; and combined with the power of optimal estimator it provides exceptional precision at small scales. These small-scale modes (k 0.02 s km-1), unavailable in Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument analyses, are sensitive to the theal state and reionization history of the intergalactic medium, as well as the nature of dark matter. As an example, a simple Fisher forecast analysis estimates that our results can improve small-scale cut-off sensitivity by more than a factor of 2.

LBL Publications (2021)

We characterize the selection cuts and clustering properties of a magnitude-limited sample of bright galaxies that is part of the Bright Galaxy Survey (BGS) of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) using the ninth data release of the Legacy Imaging Surveys (DR9). We describe changes in the DR9 selection compared to the DR8 one and we also compare the DR9 selection in three distinct regions: BASS/MzLS in the north Galactic Cap (NGC), DECaLS in the NGC, and DECaLS in the south Galactic Cap (SGC). We investigate the systematics associated with the selection and assess its completeness by matching the BGS targets with the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We measure the angular clustering for the overall bright sample (rmag ≤ 19.5) and as function of apparent magnitude and colour. This enables to deteine the clustering strength r0 and slope γby fitting a power-law model that can be used to generate accurate mock catalogues for this tracer. We use a counts-in-cells technique to explore higher order statistics and cross-correlations with external spectroscopic data sets in order to check the evolution of the clustering with redshift and the redshift distribution of the BGS targets using clustering redshifts. While this work validates the properties of the BGS bright targets, the final target selection pipeline and clustering properties of the entire DESI BGS will be fully characterized and validated with the spectroscopic data of Survey Validation.

The quasar target selection for the upcoming survey of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will be fixed for the next 5 yr. The aim of this work is to validate the quasar selection by studying the impact of imaging systematics as well as stellar and galactic contaminants, and to develop a procedure to mitigate them. Density fluctuations of quasar targets are found to be related to photometric properties such as seeing and depth of the Data Release 9 of the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys. To model this complex relation, we explore machine learning algorithms (random forest and multilayer perceptron) as an alternative to the standard linear regression. Splitting the footprint of the Legacy Imaging Surveys into three regions according to photometric properties, we perform an independent analysis in each region, validating our method using extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) EZ-mocks. The mitigation procedure is tested by comparing the angular correlation of the corrected target selection on each photometric region to the angular correlation function obtained using quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 16. With our procedure, we recover a similar level of correlation between DESI quasar targets and SDSS quasars in two-thirds of the total footprint and we show that the excess of correlation in the remaining area is due to a stellar contamination that should be removed with DESI spectroscopic data. We derive the Limber parameters in our three imaging regions and compare them to previous measurements from SDSS and the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey.

LBL Publications (2022)

We investigate using three-point statistics in constraining the galaxy-halo connection. We show that for some galaxy samples, the constraints on the halo occupation distribution parameters are dominated by the three-point function signal (over its two-point counterpart). We demonstrate this on mock catalogues corresponding to the Luminous red galaxies (LRGs), Emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and quasars (QSOs) targeted by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Survey. The projected three-point function for triangle sides less up to 20 h-1 Mpc measured from a cubic Gpc of data can constrain the characteristic minimum mass of the LRGs with a preci sion of 0.46 per cent. For comparison, similar constraints from the projected two-point function are 1.55 per cent. The improvements for the ELGs and QSOs targets are more modest. In the case of the QSOs, it is caused by the high shot-noise of the sample, and in the case of the ELGs, it is caused by the range of halo masses of the host haloes. The most time-consuming part of our pipeline is the measurement of the three-point functions. We adopt a tabulation method, proposed in earlier works for the two-point function, to significantly reduce the required compute time for the three-point analysis.

LBL Publications (2023)

The PRObabilistic Value-added Bright Galaxy Survey (PROVABGS) catalog will provide measurements of galaxy properties, such as stellar mass (M *), star formation rate (SFR), stellar metallicity (Z), and stellar age (t age), for >10 million galaxies of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Bright Galaxy Survey. Full posterior distributions of the galaxy properties will be inferred using state-of-the-art Bayesian spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of DESI spectroscopy and Legacy Surveys photometry. In this work, we present the SED model, the neural emulator for the model, and the Bayesian inference framework of PROVABGS. Furthermore, we apply the PROVABGS SED modeling on realistic synthetic DESI spectra and photometry, constructed using the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model. We compare the inferred galaxy properties to the true values of the simulation using a hierarchical Bayesian framework to quantify accuracy and precision. Overall, we accurately infer the true M *, SFR, Z, and t age of the simulated galaxies. However, the priors on galaxy properties induced by the SED model have a significant impact on the posteriors, which we characterize in detail. This work also demonstrates that a joint analysis of spectra and photometry significantly improves the constraints on galaxy properties over photometry alone and is necessary to mitigate the impact of the priors. With the methodology presented and validated in this work, PROVABGS will maximize information extracted from DESI observations and extend current galaxy studies to new regimes and unlock cutting-edge probabilistic analyses. https://github.com/changhoonhahn/provabgs/

LBL Publications (2022)

We have updated and applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) machine-learning model to discover and characterize damped Lyα systems (DLAs) based on Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) mock spectra. We have optimized the training process and constructed a CNN model that yields a DLA classification accuracy above 99% for spectra that have signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) above 5 per pixel. The classification accuracy is the rate of correct classifications. This accuracy remains above 97% for lower S/N ≈1 spectra. This CNN model provides estimations for redshift and H i column density with standard deviations of 0.002 and 0.17 dex for spectra with S/N above 3 pixel-1. Also, this DLA finder is able to identify overlapping DLAs and sub-DLAs. Further, the impact of different DLA catalogs on the measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) is investigated. The cosmological fitting parameter result for BAO has less than 0.61% difference compared to analysis of the mock results with perfect knowledge of DLAs. This difference is lower than the statistical error for the first year estimated from the mock spectra: above 1.7%. We also compared the performances of the CNN and Gaussian Process (GP) models. Our improved CNN model has moderately 14% higher purity and 7% higher completeness than an older version of the GP code, for S/N > 3. Both codes provide good DLA redshift estimates, but the GP produces a better column density estimate by 24% less standard deviation. A credible DLA catalog for the DESI main survey can be provided by combining these two algorithms.

LBL Publications (2021)

We present measurements of the redshift-dependent clustering of a DESI-like luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample selected from the Legacy Survey imaging data set, and use the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework to fit the clustering signal. The photometric LRG sample in this study contains 2.7 million objects over the redshift range of 0.4 < z < 0.9 over 5655 deg2. We have developed new photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates using the Legacy Survey DECam and WISE photometry, with σNMAD = 0.02 precision for LRGs. We compute the projected correlation function using new methods that maximize signal-to-noise ratio while incorporating redshift uncertainties. We present a novel algorithm for dividing irregular survey geometries into equal-area patches for jackknife resampling. For a five-parameter HOD model fit using the MultiDark halo catalogue, we find that there is little evolution in HOD parameters except at the highest redshifts. The inferred large-scale structure bias is largely consistent with constant clustering amplitude over time. In an appendix, we explore limitations of Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting using stochastic likelihood estimates resulting from applying HOD methods to N-body catalogues, and present a new technique for finding best-fitting parameters in this situation. Accompanying this paper, we have released the Photometric Redshifts for the Legacy Surveys catalogue of photo-z's obtained by applying the methods used in this work to the full Legacy Survey Data Release 8 data set. This catalogue provides accurate photometric redshifts for objects with z < 21 over more than 16 000 deg2 of sky.

We use luminous red galaxies selected from the imaging surveys that are being used for targeting by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) in combination with CMB lensing maps from the Planck collaboration to probe the amplitude of large-scale structure over 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1. Our galaxy sample, with an angular number density of approximately 500 deg-2 over 18,000 sq.deg., is divided into 4 tomographic bins by photometric redshift and the redshift distributions are calibrated using spectroscopy from DESI. We fit the galaxy autospectra and galaxy-convergence cross-spectra using models based on cosmological perturbation theory, restricting to large scales that are expected to be well described by such models. Within the context of ΛCDM, combining all 4 samples and using priors on the background cosmology from supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, we find S 8 = σ8(ωm/0.3)0.5 = 0.73 ± 0.03. This result is lower than the prediction of the ΛCDM model conditioned on the Planck data. Our data prefer a slower growth of structure at low redshift than the model predictions, though at only modest significance.