BackgroundThe incidence of pediatric brain tumors varies by race and ethnicity, but these relationships may be confounded by socioeconomic status (SES). In this study, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database was evaluated for associations between race/ethnicity and pediatric glioma and medulloblastoma risk with adjustment for SES.
MethodsPediatric glioma and medulloblastoma cases from the SEER database (years: 2000-2016) were included. Differences in incidence rates by ethnicity, sex, age, and SES-related factors were evaluated by calculation of age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) and annual percent change (APC). SES-related factors (percentage without less than high school graduation, median household income, and percentage foreign-born) were derived from the census at the county-level (year: 2000). Multivariable Poisson regression models with adjustment for selected covariates were constructed to evaluate risk factors.
ResultsThe highest AAIRs of pediatric glioma were observed among non-Hispanic Whites (AAIR: 2.91 per 100 000, 95%-CI: 2.84-2.99). An increasing incidence of pediatric glioma by calendar time was observed among non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks (APC: 0.97%, 95%-CI: 0.28-1.68 and APC: 1.59%, 95%-CI: 0.03-3.18, respectively). Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity was associated with lower risk when compared with non-Hispanic White (incidence rate ratios [IRRs]: 0.66, 95%-CI: 0.63-0.70; and 0.69, 95%-CI: 0.65-0.74, respectively). For medulloblastoma, the highest AAIR was observed for non-Hispanic Whites with a positive APC (1.52%, 95%-CI: 0.15-2.91). Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks had statistically significant lower IRRs compared with non-Hispanic Whites (IRRs: 0.83, 95%-CI: 0.73-0.94; and 0.72, 95%-CI: 0.59-0.87, respectively).
ConclusionNon-Hispanic White race/ethnicity was associated with higher pediatric glioma and medulloblastoma IRRs in models with adjustments for SES.