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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Here you will find a comprehensive list of the Working Papers for the Institute for Social Science Research (ISSR). The Institute for Social Science Research is a center for intellectual activity and basic research in the social sciences. We bring together faculty and students from a wide variety of disciplines, from the basic social science disciplines and the more applied programs in the professional schools alike. Our substantive focus is wide-ranging,including projects on the politics of race and ethnicity, poverty, immigration, public policy, social change, mass media, bureaucracy, ethnic identity in university life, and the political party system. Our particular strength lies in large-scale, interdisciplinary, quantitative research, but we welcome many smaller projects as well. A central component of this activity is the training of students to carry out such research, especially in the use of survey research and the secondary analysis of archived datasets.

Cover page of Sex Differences in the Allocation of Work Effort Among Professionals and Managers

Sex Differences in the Allocation of Work Effort Among Professionals and Managers

(1987)

The research reported here builds on our earlier work on sex differences in the allocation of effort. In our earlier analysis of data from a repre- sentative sample of the working population (Bielby and Bielby 1985), we found that women allocate significantly more effort to work than do men with comparable job and family responsibilities. We extend those findings with analyses of patterns of allocation of work effort among men and women professionals and managers.

Cover page of Gender and the Choice of Physicians' Employment Status

Gender and the Choice of Physicians' Employment Status

(1987)

During the last 15 years, women have substantially increased their share of traditionally male professional jobs. As recently as 1975, only 15 percent of the law degrees and 3 percent of the dentistry degrees were earned by women. In 1985, however, women earned 38 percent of the law degrees and 21 percent of the degrees in dentistry. Just as dramatic has been the increase in the number of women physicians. In 1975, women received 13 percent of the medical degrees and by 1985 this figure had increased to 30 percent. It is currently estimated that one-third of all medical students today are female. Generally, these types of figures are used to illustrate that gender differences in professional occupations are narrowing. However, in spite of the increase in the number of female physicians, there still exist several differences between male and female physicians. A number of studies have noted that differences exist across gender in physicians' choice of specialty, board certification, and work hours (Becker et al. 1984; Culler and Oshfeldt 1987; Mitchell 1984; Silberger et al. 1987). The factors that cause these gender differences in incentives are also going to affect the physician's choice of employment status. In fact, female physicians are nearly twice as likely to be employees than their male colleagues. Only 23.5 percent of male physicians were employees in 1985 compared with 45.5 percent of female physicians (Cotter 1986). The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender with regards to physicians' employment status.

Cover page of Disciplinary Differences in Research Performance by Female Academicians: The Effect of the Proportion of Women

Disciplinary Differences in Research Performance by Female Academicians: The Effect of the Proportion of Women

(1987)

The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of occupational/ disciplinary differences in women's research production and to examine these differences from various theoretical perspectives. It is clear that research performance is central to advancement in the profession and is, therefore, an important area of inquiry (e.g. Blackburn et a1,,1978; Smart & McLaughlin,1978; Weiss & Lillard,1982). It is also clear that women tend to be less .productive in research than men and generally do not fare as well in terms of career outcomes (Astin, 1978,1984; Cole,1979; Reskin,1978). Given the importance of research performance in the typical academic career, knowledge about occupation-specific performance differences is important to women who are engaged in (or aspire to) careers in academe.

Cover page of Workforce Flexibility: Implications for Women Workers

Workforce Flexibility: Implications for Women Workers

(1987)

. In this paper I will make the argument that increasing labor flexibility and, particularly, the trend toward more part-time or contingent work represents a structural change rather than a cyclical fluctuation. I will then briefly describe the characteristics of the contemporary female contingent labor force and lay out some of the implications of flexibility for women's employment prospects and for emerging patterns of labor segmentation.

Cover page of Physical Activity on the Job: Effects on Birth Outcomes and Implications for Public Policy

Physical Activity on the Job: Effects on Birth Outcomes and Implications for Public Policy

(1987)

This paper reviews many European and American studies to address the following: (1) the relationship between maternal employment and decreased or low birth weight, and (2) assessment of evidence that would lead to restrictions in employment or requirements for prenatal leave for pregnant working women.

Cover page of Recovery from Unemplyment in Latina Women After a Plant Closure

Recovery from Unemplyment in Latina Women After a Plant Closure

(1987)

A common assumption about women as laborers made in past unemployment research has been that their participation in the labor force is optional (Schlozman 1979). This assumption suggests that when unemployed, such women should be less susceptible than are males, to personal, familial or social sources of stress (Rundquist and Sletto 1936). Additionally, this view sug- gests that women, especially Latino women who are accustomed to the role of homemaker, should not object to job loss nor to a return to this role, particularly since they are supported by their husbands (Romero 1986).

Cover page of Sex Object and Worker: Incompatible Images of Women

Sex Object and Worker: Incompatible Images of Women

(1987)

The authors contend that the research on sex at work reveals an interesting paradox. At work, women are perceived as using sex to their advantage, yet in practice, they are hurt by sex at work. On the other hand, men who are perceived as concerned with business display more sexual behavior than women at work and may benefit from it. This paradox contains three components: actual behavior, the impacts of sex at work, and beliefs and stereotypes concerning women and men.

This paper examines the research relevant to this paradox. It begins by tracing the development of research on sexual behavior in the workplace, from its early emphasis on defining and documenting sexual harassment through other findings concerning sexual nonharassment. In order to understand sex at work, several frameworks or theories are discussed, with special emphasis on the concept of sex-role spillover. The sex-roll spillover perspective is then used to tie together the three components of the paradox: behavior, impacts, and beliefs.

Cover page of Work and Family Roles and Women's Mental Health

Work and Family Roles and Women's Mental Health

(1987)

The present study relates mental health to characteristics of work and family roles in a small sample of employed female clerical workers who are married and/or have children living at home. The main goals of the investiga- tion are (a) to examine the separate and joint influence of qualities of work and family roles on women's mental health, and b) to explore conditions under which the effects of work and family roles are maximized.

Cover page of Some Implications of Maternal Employment for the Mother and the Family

Some Implications of Maternal Employment for the Mother and the Family

(1987)

The current paper explores the relation of mothers' employment status to a variety of factors relevant to the home environment, particularly those that may directly affect the emotional and cognitive development of children in these families. The results are based on secondary analyses of data from two independent studies--one of parents of preschool children, the other of families of elementary school children. Because issues pertaining to mothers' employment status were incidental to the main thrust of these studies, this report cannot do justice to more complex models of the linkages between work and family contexts. Most notably, our data sets do not include many of the factors hypothesized to moderate the interface between work and family situ- ations. Rather, it is hoped that these secondary analyses can contribute added information concerning the global relationship of maternal employment to some parent and family characteristics critical to children's healthy emotional development, while at the same time underlining some of the special needs of mothers who work outside the home.

Cover page of Women, Work, and Welfare: The Need for a Community Model

Women, Work, and Welfare: The Need for a Community Model

(1987)

In September 1985, the California State Assembly initiated a job training/workfare for welfare recipients called GAIN, Greater Avenues for Independence. This program, though barely underway, is already seen as a model for future workfare programs in other states as well as at the federal level. GAIN and other workfare proposals raise the issue of how women in low-wage work are to sustain themselves. This paper explores the need for policy makers to focus on neighborhood development when creating programs intended to move women (who are disproportionately women of color) off the welfare rolls and into wage labor.