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Adaptive online self‐gating (ADIOS) for free‐breathing noncontrast renal MR angiography

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To develop a respiratory self-gating method, adaptive online self-gating (ADIOS), for noncontrast MR angiography (NC MRA) of renal arteries to overcome some limitations of current free-breathing methods.


A NC MRA pulse sequence for online respiratory self-gating was developed based on three-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and slab-selective inversion-recovery. Motion information was derived directly from the slab being imaged for online gating. Scan efficiency was maintained by an automatic adaptive online algorithm. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of image quality were performed and results were compared with conventional diaphragm navigator (NAV).


NC MRA imaging was successfully completed in all subjects (n = 15). Similarly good image quality was observed in the proximal-middle renal arteries with ADIOS compared with NAV. Superior image quality was observed in the middle-distal renal arteries in the right kidneys with no NAV-induced artifacts. Maximal visible artery length was significantly longer with ADIOS versus NAV in the right kidneys. NAV setup was completely eliminated and scan time was significantly shorter with ADIOS on average compared with NAV.


The proposed ADIOS technique for noncontrast MRA provides high-quality visualization of renal arteries with no diaphragm navigator-induced artifacts, simplified setup, and shorter scan time.

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