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Open Access Publications from the University of California

GEM-type detectors using LIGA and etchable glass technologies


Gas electron multipliers (GEMS) have been made by a deep X-ray lithography technique (LIGA process) using synchrotron radiation on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and by UV processes using a UV etchable glass. Gain, stability and rate capability for these detectors are described.The LIGA detectors described consist of PMMA sheets of various thicknesses, 125mm to 350mm, and have 150mm 64 150mm square holes spaced with a pitch of 300mm. Thin copper electrodes are plated on the top and bottom surfaces using a Damascene method, followed by electroless plating of the copper onto a palladium-tin base layer. For various thicknesses of PMMA measurements have been made of absolute gain vs. voltage, time stability of gain, and rate capability. The operating gas mixture was usually Ar/CO2 (70/30) gas, but some tests were also done using P10 gas. We also made GEM-like detectors using the UV etchable glass called Foturan, patterned by exposure to UV light and subsequent etching. A few measurements using these detectors will be reported, including avalanche gain and time stability.

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