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Identification of GPR83 as the receptor for the neuroendocrine peptide PEN

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PEN is an abundant peptide in the brain that has been implicated in the regulation of feeding. We identified a receptor for PEN in mouse hypothalamus and Neuro2A cells. PEN bound to and activated GPR83, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR). Reduction of GPR83 expression in mouse brain and Neuro2A cells reduced PEN binding and signaling, consistent with GPR83 functioning as the major receptor for PEN. In some brain regions, GPR83 colocalized with GPR171, a GPCR that binds the neuropeptide bigLEN, another neuropeptide that is involved in feeding and is generated from the same precursor protein as is PEN. Coexpression of these two receptors in cell lines altered the signaling properties of each receptor, suggesting a functional interaction. Our data established PEN as a neuropeptide that binds GPR83 and suggested that these two ligand-receptor systems-PEN-GPR83 and bigLEN-GPR171-may be functionally coupled in the regulation of feeding.

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