Fault properties, rheology and interseismic deformation in Southern California from high-precision space geodesy
- Author(s): Lindsey, Eric Ostrom
- et al.
This dissertation presents the collection and processing of dense high-precision geode- tic data across major faults throughout Southern California. The results are used to inform numerical models of the long-term slip rate and interseismic behavior of these faults, as well as their frictional and rheological properties at shallow depths. The data include campaign surveys of dense networks of GPS monuments crossing the faults, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations from ENVISAT. Using a Bayesian framework, we first assess to what extent these data constrain relative fault slip rates on the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, and show that the inferred parameters depend critically on the assumed fault geometry. We next look in detail at near -field observations of strain across the San Jacinto fault, and show that the source of this strain may be either deep anomalous creep or a new form of shallow, distributed yielding in the top few kilometers of the crust. On the San Andreas fault, we show that this type of shallow yielding does occur, and its presence or absence is controlled by variations in the local normal stress that result from subtle bends in the fault. Finally, we investigate shallow creep on the Imperial fault, and show that thanks to observations from all parts of the earthquake cycle it is now possible to obtain a strong constraint on the shallow frictional rheology and depth of the material responsible for creep. The results also suggest activity on a hidden fault to the West, whose existence has been previously suggested but never confirmed