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Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1212/nxg.0000000000000034
ObjectiveTo describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations.
MethodsDiagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio.
ResultsWe report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R).
ConclusionsThis novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders.
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