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Widefield multifrequency fluorescence lifetime imaging using a two-tap complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera with lateral electric field charge modulators.


Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) measures the fluorescence lifetime of entire images in a fast and efficient manner. We report a widefield FD-FLIM system based on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera equipped with two-tap true correlated double sampling lock-in pixels and lateral electric field charge modulators. Owing to the fast intrinsic response and modulation of the camera, our system allows parallel multifrequency FLIM in one measurement via fast Fourier transform. We demonstrate that at a fundamental frequency of 20 MHz, 31-harmonics can be measured with 64 phase images per laser repetition period. As a proof of principle, we analyzed cells transfected with Cerulean and with a construct of Cerulean-Venus that shows Förster Resonance Energy Transfer at different modulation frequencies. We also tracked the temperature change of living cells via the fluorescence lifetime of Rhodamine B at different frequencies. These results indicate that our widefield multifrequency FD-FLIM system is a valuable tool in the biomedical field.

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