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Modeling the Probability of HIV Infection over Time in High-Risk Seronegative Participants Receiving Placebo in Five Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Trials: A Patient-Level Pooled Analysis.


The World Health Organization recommends pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to quantify the individual risk of HIV infection over time, using a large database of high-risk individuals (n = 5583). We used data from placebo recipients in five phase III PrEP trials: iPrEx, conducted in men who have sex with men and transgender women; VOICE, conducted in young women at high sexual risk; Partners PrEP, conducted in HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples; TDF2, conducted in high-risk heterosexual men and women; and BTS, conducted in persons who inject drugs. The probability of HIV infection over time was estimated using NONMEM7.4. We identified predictors of HIV risk and found a substantial difference in the risk of infection among and within trial populations, with each study including a mix of low, moderate, and high-risk individuals (p < 0.05). Persons who were female at birth were at a higher risk of HIV infection than people who were male at birth. Final models were integrated in a tool that can assess person-specific risk and simulate cumulative HIV risk over time. These models can be used to optimize future PrEP clinical trials by identifying potential participants at highest risk.

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