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Open Access Publications from the University of California

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Double pronuclei injection of DNA into zygotes increases yields of transgenic mouse lines


Transgenic mice are increasingly used for gene function and regulation studies of mammalian genes. A major limitation is the necessity to produce a large number of founder animals to obtain one line with the desired expression pattern. We developed a method, the 'double pronuclei injection', that doubles the yield of transgenic mouse lines obtained from each injection session, thereby reducing the time, effort and costs of generating transgenic mice. Three transgenic vectors were microinjected into the male and female pronuclei of zygotes. Approximately half of the resulting born mice were transgenic. This represented a 60% increase in the yield of founders per injected zygote, and a 100% increase in the yield of transgenic mice per born animal, when compared to yields obtained using single pronucleus injection. This method should prove useful for generating large numbers of transgenic mice for gene regulation studies and for conditional gene ablation

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