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General theory of feedback control of a nuclear spin ensemble in quantum dots


We present a microscopic theory of the nonequilibrium nuclear spin dynamics driven by the electron and/or hole under continuous-wave pumping in a quantum dot. We show the correlated dynamics of the nuclear spin ensemble and the electron and/or hole under optical excitation as a quantum feedback loop and investigate the dynamics of the many nuclear spins as a nonlinear collective motion. This gives rise to three observable effects: (i) hysteresis, (ii) locking (avoidance) of the pump absorption strength to (from) the natural resonance, and (iii) suppression (amplification) of the fluctuation of weakly polarized nuclear spins, leading to prolonged (shortened) electron-spin coherence time. A single nonlinear feedback function is constructed which determines the different outcomes of the three effects listed above depending on the feedback being negative or positive. The general theory also helps to put in perspective the wide range of existing theories on the problem of a single electron spin in a nuclear spin bath. © 2013 American Physical Society.

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