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Factors associated with habitual sleep duration in US adults with hypertension: a cross-sectional study of the 2015-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.



The relationship between inadequate sleep duration and hypertension risk has been established in the general population, but there is a gap in the literature on predictors of habitual sleep duration in adults with hypertension. This study examined factors associated with habitual sleep duration among adults with hypertension in the United States (US).


Data of 5660 adults with hypertension were obtained by combining the 2015-2018 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Survey weighted multinomial logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with short (< 7 h) and long (> 9 h) sleep duration with adequate sleep duration (7-9 h) as the reference.


The prevalence of self-reported adequate sleep duration was 65.7%, while short sleep duration was 23.6%, and long sleep duration 10.7%. Short sleep duration (compared to adequate sleep duration) was positively associated with history of seeking help for sleeping difficulties (relative risk ratio [RRR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.53), Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity (RRR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.61-2.67), working ≥45 h/week (RRR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.32-2.48), and negatively associated with older age ≥ 65 years (RRR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and female gender (RRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88). Long sleep duration was positively associated with female gender (RRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.001-1.54), chronic kidney disease (RRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.92), moderate depressive symptoms (RRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.08-2.44), moderately severe to severe depressive symptoms (RRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.43), being in retirement (RRR, 3.46; 95% CI, 2.18-5.49), and not working due to health reasons (RRR, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.89-8.22) or other reasons (RRR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.84-5.88).


This population-based study identified factors independently associated with habitual sleep duration in adults with hypertension. These included help-seeking for sleeping difficulty, gender, age, chronic kidney disease, depressive symptoms, race/ethnicity, and employment status. These findings can help in the development of tailored approaches for promoting adequate sleep duration in adults with hypertension.

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