Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Vascular niche IL-6 induces alternative macrophage activation in glioblastoma through HIF-2α


Spatiotemporal regulation of tumor immunity remains largely unexplored. Here we identify a vascular niche that controls alternative macrophage activation in glioblastoma (GBM). We show that tumor-promoting macrophages are spatially proximate to GBM-associated endothelial cells (ECs), permissive for angiocrine-induced macrophage polarization. We identify ECs as one of the major sources for interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in GBM microenvironment. Furthermore, we reveal that colony-stimulating factor-1 and angiocrine IL-6 induce robust arginase-1 expression and macrophage alternative activation, mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-dependent transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α. Finally, utilizing a genetic murine GBM model, we show that EC-specific knockout of IL-6 inhibits macrophage alternative activation and improves survival in the GBM-bearing mice. These findings illustrate a vascular niche-dependent mechanism for alternative macrophage activation and cancer progression, and suggest that targeting endothelial IL-6 may offer a selective and efficient therapeutic strategy for GBM, and possibly other solid malignant tumors.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View