CRADA: Synthesis and Evaluation of NMC Cathode Materials
Ni-rich NMCs, technologically important cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were synthesized and studied for this project. Electrodes were also harvested from cycled and/or aged commercial Li-ion cells and examined using high-throughput, ensemble average synchrotron soft x-ray absorption techniques developed at LBNL to observe surface reconstruction in NMC materials (see F. Lin et al. Nature Commun. 5:3529, (2014)). A goal was to observe which cycling and storage conditions lead to degradation of cathode materials, a process that has been implicated in premature failure of the devices in some cases. VW provided pristine electrodes to use as baselines. Cells containing electrodes synthesized at LBNL were cycled or subjected to various storage conditions at LBNL, and VW also provided cycled or aged electrodes from commercial cells with histories of interest.