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Phase 1 study of sirolimus in combination with oral cyclophosphamide and topotecan in children and young adults with relapsed and refractory solid tumors.

  • Author(s): Vo, Kieuhoa T
  • Karski, Erin E
  • Nasholm, Nicole M
  • Allen, Shelly
  • Hollinger, Fabienne
  • Gustafson, W Clay
  • Long-Boyle, Janel R
  • Shiboski, Stephen
  • Matthay, Katherine K
  • DuBois, Steven G
  • et al.
Abstract

Purpose

To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicities, and pharmacodynamics effects of sirolimus combined with oral metronomic topotecan and cyclophosphamide in a pediatric population.

Materials and methods

Patients who were 1 to 30 years of age with relapsed/refractory solid tumors (including CNS) were eligible. Patients received daily oral sirolimus and cyclophosphamide (25-50 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-21 and oral topotecan (0.8 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-14 in 28-day cycles. Sirolimus steady-state plasma trough concentrations of 3-7.9 ng/mL and 8-12.0 ng/mL were evaluated, with dose escalation based on a 3+3 phase 1 design. Biomarkers of angiogenesis were also evaluated.

Results

Twenty-one patients were treated (median age 18 years; range 9-30). Dose-limiting toxicities included myelosuppression, ALT elevation, stomatitis, and hypertriglyceridemia. The MTD was sirolimus with trough goal of 8-12.0 ng/mL; cyclophosphamide 25 mg/m2/dose; and topotecan 0.8 mg/m2/dose. No objective responses were observed. Four patients had prolonged stable disease > 4 cycles (range 4-12). Correlative biomarker analyses demonstrated reductions in thrombospondin-1 (p=0.043) and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 plasma concentrations at 21 days compared to baseline.

Conclusions

The combination of oral sirolimus, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide was well tolerated and biomarker studies demonstrated modulation of angiogenic pathways with this regimen.

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