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Definability aspects of the Denjoy integral

Abstract

The Denjoy integral is an integral that extends the Lebesgue integral and can integrate any derivative. In this paper, it is shown that the graph of the indefinite Denjoy integral~$f\mapsto \int_a^x f$ is a coanalytic non-Borel relation on the product space~$M[a,b]\times C[a,b]$, where~$M[a,b]$ is the Polish space of real-valued measurable functions on~$[a,b]$ and where~$C[a,b]$ is the Polish space of real-valued continuous functions on~$[a,b]$. Using the same methods, it is also shown that the class of indefinite Denjoy integrals, called~$ACG_{\ast}[a,b]$, is a coanalytic but not Borel subclass of the space~$C[a,b]$, thus answering a question posed by Dougherty~and~Kechris. Some basic model theory of the associated spaces of integrable functions is also studied. Here the main result is that, when viewed as an~$\mathbb{R}[X]$-module with the indeterminate~$X$ being interpreted as the indefinite integral, the space of continuous functions on the interval~$[a,b]$ is elementarily equivalent to the Lebesgue-integrable and Denjoy-integrable functions on this interval, and each is stable but not superstable, and that they all have a common decidable theory when viewed as $\mathbb{Q}[X]$-modules.

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