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NOD1 and NOD2: Beyond Peptidoglycan Sensing

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NOD1 and NOD2 are pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system with well-established roles in sensing fragments of bacterial peptidoglycan. In addition to their role as microbial sensors, recent evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains (NODs) can also recognize a broader array of danger signals. Indeed, recent work has expanded the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 to encompass not only sensing of infections with viruses and parasites but also perceiving perturbations of cellular processes such as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. This review will comment on recent progress and point out emerging questions in these areas.

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