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Parathyroid hormone related-protein promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.

  • Author(s): Ongkeko, Weg M
  • Burton, Doug
  • Kiang, Alan
  • Abhold, Eric
  • Kuo, Selena Z
  • Rahimy, Elham
  • Yang, Meng
  • Hoffman, Robert M
  • Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica
  • Deftos, Leonard J
  • et al.
Abstract

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) possesses a variety of physiological and developmental functions and is also known to facilitate the progression of many common cancers, notably their skeletal invasion, primarily by increasing bone resorption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PTHrP could promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer stem cells that is critically involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. EMT was observed in DU 145 prostate cancer cells stably overexpressing either the 1-141 or 1-173 isoform of PTHrP, where there was upregulation of Snail and vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin relative to parental DU 145. By contrast, the opposite effect was observed in PC-3 prostate cancer cells where high levels of PTHrP were knocked-down via lentiviral siRNA transduction. Increased tumor progression was observed in PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 cells while decreased progression was observed in PTHrP-knockdown PC-3 cells. PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 formed larger tumors when implanted orthoptopically into nude mice and in one case resulted in spinal metastasis, an effect not observed among mice injected with parental DU 145 cells. PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 cells also caused significant bone destruction when injected into the tibiae of nude mice, while parental DU 145 cells caused little to no destruction of bone. Together, these results suggest that PTHrP may work through EMT to promote an aggressive and metastatic phenotype in prostate cancer, a pathway of importance in cancer stem cells. Thus, continued efforts to elucidate the pathways involved in PTHrP-induced EMT as well as to develop ways to specifically target PTHrP signaling may lead to more effective therapies for prostate cancer.

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