Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UCSF

UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, feasibility and client preference for rapid oral fluid-based diagnosis of HIV infection in rural India.

  • Author(s): Pant Pai, Nitika
  • Joshi, Rajnish
  • Dogra, Sandeep
  • Taksande, Bharati
  • Kalantri, SP
  • Pai, Madhukar
  • Narang, Pratibha
  • Tulsky, Jacqueline P
  • Reingold, Arthur L
  • et al.
Abstract

Background

Oral fluid-based rapid tests are promising for improving HIV diagnosis and screening. However, recent reports from the United States of false-positive results with the oral OraQuick ADVANCE HIV1/2 test have raised concerns about their performance in routine practice. We report a field evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy, client preference, and feasibility for the oral fluid-based OraQuick Rapid HIV1/2 test in a rural hospital in India.

Methodology/principal findings

A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in 450 consenting participants with suspected HIV infection in rural India. The objectives were to evaluate performance, client preference and feasibility of the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 tests. Two Oraquick Rapid HIV1/2 tests (oral fluid and finger stick) were administered in parallel with confirmatory ELISA/Western Blot (reference standard). Pre- and post-test counseling and face to face interviews were conducted to determine client preference. Of the 450 participants, 146 were deemed to be HIV sero-positive using the reference standard (seropositivity rate of 32% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28%, 37%)). The OraQuick test on oral fluid specimens had better performance with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 99, 100), as compared to the OraQuick test on finger stick specimens with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100), and a specificity of 99.7% (95% CI 98.4, 99.9). The OraQuick oral fluid-based test was preferred by 87% of the participants for first time testing and 60% of the participants for repeat testing.

Conclusion/significance

In a rural Indian hospital setting, the OraQuick Rapid- HIV1/2 test was found to be highly accurate. The oral fluid-based test performed marginally better than the finger stick test. The oral OraQuick test was highly preferred by participants. In the context of global efforts to scale-up HIV testing, our data suggest that oral fluid-based rapid HIV testing may work well in rural, resource-limited settings.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View