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Immunoglobulin A and liver diseases.

  • Author(s): Inamine, Tatsuo
  • Schnabl, Bernd
  • et al.
Abstract

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a major immunoglobulin isotype in the gut and plays a role in maintenance of gut homeostasis. Secretory IgA (SIgA) has multiple functions in the gut, such as to regulate microbiota composition, to protect intestinal epithelium from pathogenic microorganisms, and to help for immune-system development. The liver is the front-line organ that receives gut-derived products through the portal vein, implying that the liver could be severely affected by a disrupted intestinal homeostasis. Indeed, some liver diseases like alcoholic liver disease are associated with an altered composition of gut microbiota and increased blood endotoxin levels. Therefore, deficiency of SIgA function appears as a significant factor for the pathogenesis of liver diseases associated with altered gut microbiome. In this review, we describe SIgA functions on the gut microbiome and discuss the role of IgA for liver diseases, especially alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

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