UC San Diego
Assessing phospholipase A2 activity toward cardiolipin by mass spectrometry.
- Author(s): Hsu, Yuan-Hao
- Dumlao, Darren S
- Cao, Jian
- Dennis, Edward A
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059267
Cardiolipin, a major component of mitochondria, is critical for mitochondrial functioning including the regulation of cytochrome c release during apoptosis and proper electron transport. Mitochondrial cardiolipin with its unique bulky amphipathic structure is a potential substrate for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in vivo. We have developed mass spectrometric methodology for analyzing PLA2 activity toward various cardiolipin forms and demonstrate that cardiolipin is a substrate for sPLA2, cPLA2 and iPLA2, but not for Lp-PLA2. Our results also show that none of these PLA2s have significant PLA1 activities toward dilyso-cardiolipin. To understand the mechanism of cardiolipin hydrolysis by PLA2, we also quantified the release of monolyso-cardiolipin and dilyso-cardiolipin in the PLA2 assays. The sPLA2s caused an accumulation of dilyso-cardiolipin, in contrast to iPLA2 which caused an accumulation of monolyso-cardiolipin. Moreover, cardiolipin inhibits iPLA2 and cPLA2, and activates sPLA2 at low mol fractions in mixed micelles of Triton X-100 with the substrate 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-phosphtidylcholine. Thus, cardiolipin functions as both a substrate and a regulator of PLA2 activity and the ability to assay the various forms of PLA2 is important in understanding its function.