Documentation of soil conditions at liquefaction and non-liquefaction sites from 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake
The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake provides case histories of ground failure and non-ground failure that are valuable to the ongoing development of liquefaction susceptibility, triggering and surface manifestation models because the data occupy sparsely populated parameter spaces (i.e. high cyclic stress ratio and high fines content with low to moderate soil plasticity). In this paper, we document results from several large site investigation programs conducted in Nantou, Wufeng and Yuanlin, Taiwan. The seismic performance of the investigated sites include non-ground failure building and free-field sites, building sites with partial foundation hearing failures, free-field lateral spread sites, and free-field level ground sites with sediment boils. Field and laboratory investigation protocols for the sites are described, including cone penetration testing (some with pore pressure and shear wave velocity measurements) and rotary wash borings with standard penetration testing (including energy measurements). Implications of the SPT energy measurements with respect to established guidelines for the estimation of SPT energy ratio (including short rod corrections) are presented. Finally, data for three example sites are shown that illustrate potential applications of the data set, and which also demonstrate a condition where existing liquefaction analysis procedures fail to predict the observed field performance. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.