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Temporal effect of HLA-B*57 on viral control during primary HIV-1 infection

  • Author(s): Vaidya, Sagar A
  • Streeck, Hendrik
  • Beckwith, Noor
  • Ghebremichael, Musie
  • Pereyra, Florencia
  • Kwon, Douglas S
  • Addo, Marylyn M
  • Rychert, Jenna
  • Routy, Jean-Pierre
  • Jessen, Heiko
  • Kelleher, Anthony D
  • Hecht, Frederick
  • Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre
  • Carrington, Mary
  • Walker, Bruce D
  • Allen, Todd M
  • Rosenberg, Eric S
  • Altfeld, Marcus
  • et al.

Abstract Background HLA-B alleles are associated with viral control in chronic HIV-1 infection, however, their role in primary HIV-1 disease is unclear. This study sought to determine the role of HLA-B alleles in viral control during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and establishment of the early viral load set point (VLSP). Findings Individuals identified during primary HIV-1 infection were HLA class I typed and followed longitudinally. Associations between HLA-B alleles and HIV-1 viral replication during acute infection and VLSP were analyzed in untreated subjects. The results showed that neither HLA-B*57 nor HLA-B*27 were significantly associated with viral control during acute HIV-1 infection (Fiebig stage I-IV, n=171). HLA-B*57 was however significantly associated with a subsequent lower VLSP (p<0.001, n=135) with nearly 1 log10 less median viral load. Analysis of a known polymorphism at position 97 of HLA-B showed significant associations with both lower initial viral load (p<0.01) and lower VLSP (p<0.05). However, this association was dependent on different amino acids at this position for each endpoint. Conclusions The effect of HLA-B*57 on viral control is more pronounced during the later stages of primary HIV-1 infection, which suggests the underlying mechanism of control occurs at a critical period in the first several months after HIV-1 acquisition. The risk profile of polymorphisms at position 97 of HLA-B are more broadly associated with HIV-1 viral load during primary infection and may serve as a focal point in further studies of HLA-B function.

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