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Combined Immunodeficiency Due to MALT1 Mutations, Treated by Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

  • Author(s): Punwani, D
  • Wang, H
  • Chan, AY
  • Cowan, MJ
  • Mallott, J
  • Sunderam, U
  • Mollenauer, M
  • Srinivasan, R
  • Brenner, SE
  • Mulder, A
  • Claas, FHJ
  • Weiss, A
  • Puck, JM
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2015, The Author(s). Purpose: A male infant developed generalized rash, intestinal inflammation and severe infections including persistent cytomegalovirus. Family history was negative, T cell receptor excision circles were normal, and engraftment of maternal cells was absent. No defects were found in multiple genes associated with severe combined immunodeficiency. A 9/10 HLA matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) led to mixed chimerism with clinical resolution. We sought an underlying cause for this patient’s immune deficiency and dysregulation. Methods: Clinical and laboratory features were reviewed. Whole exome sequencing and analysis of genomic DNA from the patient, parents and 2 unaffected siblings was performed, revealing 2 MALT1 variants. With a host-specific HLA-C antibody, we assessed MALT1 expression and function in the patient’s post-HCT autologous and donor lymphocytes. Wild type MALT1 cDNA was added to transformed autologous patient B cells to assess functional correction. Results: The patient had compound heterozygous DNA variants affecting exon 10 of MALT1 (isoform a, NM_006785.3), a maternally inherited splice acceptor c.1019-2A > G, and a de novo deletion of c.1059C leading to a frameshift and premature termination. Autologous lymphocytes failed to express MALT1 and lacked NF-κB signaling dependent upon the CARMA1, BCL-10 and MALT1 signalosome. Transduction with wild type MALT1 cDNA corrected the observed defects. Conclusions: Our nonconsanguineous patient with early onset profound combined immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation due to compound heterozygous MALT1 mutations extends the clinical and immunologic phenotype reported in 2 prior families. Clinical cure was achieved with mixed chimerism after nonmyeloablative conditioning and HCT.

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