Detecting associations between early-life DDT exposures and childhood growth patterns: A novel statistical approach
- Author(s): Heggeseth, B
- Harley, K
- Warner, M
- Jewell, N
- Eskenazi, B
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131443
© 2015 Heggeseth et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. It has been hypothesized that environmental exposures at key development periods such as in utero play a role in childhood growth and obesity. To investigate whether in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), is associated with childhood physical growth, we took a novel statistical approach to analyze data from the CHAMACOS cohort study. To model heterogeneity in the growth patterns, we used a finite mixture model in combination with a data transformation to characterize body mass index (BMI) with four groups and estimated the association between exposure and group membership. In boys, higher maternal concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy are associated with a BMI growth pattern that is stable until about age five followed by increased growth through age nine. In contrast, higher maternal DDT exposure during pregnancy is associated with a flat, relatively stable growth pattern in girls. This study suggests that in utero exposure to DDT and DDE may be associated with childhood BMI growth patterns, not just BMI level, and both the magnitude of exposure and sex may impact the relationship.
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