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Resistant Starch Type 2 from Wheat Reduces Postprandial Glycemic Response with Concurrent Alterations in Gut Microbiota Composition.

  • Author(s): Hughes, Riley L;
  • Horn, William H;
  • Finnegan, Peter;
  • Newman, John W;
  • Marco, Maria L;
  • Keim, Nancy L;
  • Kable, Mary E
  • et al.
Abstract

The majority of research on the physiological effects of dietary resistant starch type 2 (RS2) has focused on sources derived from high-amylose maize. In this study, we conduct a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigating the effects of RS2 from wheat on glycemic response, an important indicator of metabolic health, and the gut microbiota. Overall, consumption of RS2-enriched wheat rolls for one week resulted in reduced postprandial glucose and insulin responses relative to conventional wheat when participants were provided with a standard breakfast meal containing the respective treatment rolls (RS2-enriched or conventional wheat). This was accompanied by an increase in the proportions of bacterial taxa Ruminococcus and Gemmiger in the fecal contents, reflecting the composition in the distal intestine. Additionally, fasting breath hydrogen and methane were increased during RS2-enriched wheat consumption. However, although changes in fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were not significant between control and RS-enriched wheat roll consumption, butyrate and total SCFAs were positively correlated with relative abundance of Faecalibacterium, Ruminoccocus, Roseburia, and Barnesiellaceae. These effects show that RS2-enriched wheat consumption results in a reduction in postprandial glycemia, altered gut microbial composition, and increased fermentation activity relative to wild-type wheat.

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